Jacobian conjecture

The Jacobian conjecture:

Suppose F: CNCN is a complex polynomial map, F=(F1,F2,…,FN ), Fi are polynomials of  the complex variables X=(X1 , X2, …, XN) . If  the determinant of the derivative matrix DF(X) is a non-zero constant, then F must be one to one.

In mathematics, the Jacobian conjecture is a celebrated problem on polynomials in several variables. It was first posed in 1939 by Ott-Heinrich Keller. It was later named and widely publicised by Shreeram Abhyankar, as an example of a question in the area of algebraic geometry that requires little beyond a knowledge of calculus to state. This is the 16th problem in the list of  the mathematical problems for the century proposed by Steve Smale in 2000.

The Jacobian conjecture has been proved for polynomials of degree 2 and can be reduced to the case of polynomials of degree 3 . In the case N=2 this conjecture has been verified for polynomials of degree less than 101, but is still unknown for polynomials of higher degrees. The Jacobian conjecture is notorious for the large number of attempted proofs that turned out to contain subtle errors.  See more in http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacobian_conjecture.


  • O.H. Keller, Ganze Cremonatransformationen Monatschr. Math. Phys. , 47 (1939) pp. 229–306
  • A. van den Essen, Polynomial automorphisms and the Jacobian conjecture, ISBN 3-7643-6350-9
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